Playing On the Red Is Fine (Redux)

One of the more popular posts I’ve written here is Brass Embouchures: Playing On the Red Is Fine (as long as it fits your anatomy). In this post I tried, somewhat unsuccessfully, to point out the flaws in the nearly universal belief among brass teachers that placing the mouthpiece so that the rim contacts the vermillion of the lips is a bad thing. I will try in this post to reiterate my points more clearly.

Before going too deep into this discussion, I’ve found that it’s important to point out that I’m not making a blanket recommendation that brass players should adopt a mouthpiece placement that sets the rim right on the upper or lower lip vermillion. I’m merely pointing out that the very pointed advice to avoid it is based on faulty logic and a misunderstanding of both the anatomy of the lips and embouchure form and function. Most folks aren’t going to have the anatomical features that make such a high or low mouthpiece placement work efficiently, but some do and for these players moving the mouthpiece placement off the red can be as detrimental to their embouchure as another player moving the placement to the red when it shouldn’t be. This is something that is unique to the individual player and needs to be taken on a case by case basis.

There are three basic arguments against placing the mouthpiece on the lips so that it contacts the vermillion along the top or bottom of the rim:

  1. A famous teacher or player advocated against it.
  2. The anatomy of the vermillion is such that it makes it more sensitive and prone to damage than the rest of the lip.
  3. It’s mechanically incorrect and won’t work as well as a placement with less rim contact on the vermillion.

Famous Players and Teachers

If you’re reading the post and questioning why I’m going against what appears to be conventional brass pedagogy, that’s a good thing. I always recommend that folks learn not just what we know about brass pedagogy and mechanics, but also take the time to understand how we know what we know. It’s very easy to find folks who actively discourage placing the mouthpiece on the red of the lips, but it’s not easy to understand why they recommend that. Many of these folks make their case using arguments 2 or 3 above, but an awful lot simply assert without evidence.

The bottom line here is that we can’t simply take a statement at face value based on how famous the person is who said it, we need to look past that and deal with the evidence. That which is stated without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence.

Anatomy

There is an awful lot of misinformation and misunderstanding about the anatomy and histology of the lips in the brass literature. Here is one example:

To function properly, the inner edge of the mouthpiece must be placed on tissue that is supported by muscle, but the lips are composed of fatty tissue that by itself cannot support a normal embouchure.

-Frank Campos, Trumpet Technique, 2005

Part of the difficulty in parsing comments like Campos’s is that while the medical literature has a very precise definition of the lips (which runs all the way up to the nose and down to the chin), many brass authors use the term “lips” to refer to just the vermillion. Regardless of the exact meaning in the statement above, it’s demonstrably incorrect. The entire lip, including under the vermillion, is internally made up of the orbicularis oris muscle group. There absolutely is muscle under the vermillion. Be careful when you look at diagrams that draw in the vermillion as a point of reference, they are misleading. Here is one diagram that leaves out the vermillion as a reference.

Another, less common, point I’ve recently come across is that because the epidermis at the vermillion is thinner than the normal epidermal layer there is less cushion from the skin:

Lips have around 3-5 cellular layers and above the vermillion border has as high as 16 cellular layers.

-“asdfghj,” 2017

Since “asdfghj” is both posting anonymously and also not citing his/her source, I can’t really comment on the legitimacy of this claim, however it does seem plausible. The reason the vermillion of the lips are red in people with fairer skin is that the color of the blood vessels underneath the vermillion come through. For the sake of argument, I’ll accept this as true. I still don’t find this a compelling argument and here’s why.

Without heading over to a university library and digging through the literature, a cursory internet search shows one apparently reputable source that states, “The thickness of the epidermis varies in different types of skin; it is only .05 mm thick on the eyelids, and is 1.5 mm thick on the palms and the soles of the feet.” How does this compare to the layer of skin of the lips, both the vermillion and elsewhere? It’s hard to say for certain using the internet, but Wikipedia (take it with a grain of salt) states, “The average human skin cell is about 30 micrometers in diameter, but there are variants. A skin cell usually ranges from 25-40 micrometers (squared), depending on a variety of factors.”

Let’s use the 30 micrometers average to calculate how thick the skin of the vermillion is compared to the normal epidermal layer on the lips. If the vermillion has 4 layers, that 120 micrometers. The 16 layers of skin in the rest of the lips would make for a layer 480 micrometers, a difference of 360 micrometers, or .36 millimeters. For comparison, human hair is said to range up to 181 micrometers in diameter, so the difference here is about two layers the size of the of a human hair.

I don’t find supposed cushion of two hairs to be a compelling difference, considering the mouthpiece forces involved. It’s not the layer of skin that provides the cushion and support of the embouchure, but the muscle underneath.

All the above shows, however, that there don’t appear to be plausible reasons why the vermillion would be more sensitive to pressure. That doesn’t mean that the vermillion actually isn’t. In order to get an idea, I spend some time back in 2012 going through both the medical and musical literature to see if there was any indication that injuries to the lip occurred at the vermillion more than the rest of the lip, or to see if any medical professionals happened to comment on this specific point.

While most brass players don’t “place on the red” in such a way that the rim contact the upper or lower vermillion a great deal, 100% of brass players place the mouthpiece with at least some rim contact on the vermillion. If the vermillion was more prone to injury than the rest of the lip, I would think that the medical literature discussing lip injuries due to brass playing would indicate this. In fact, it is rarely mentioned.

Injuries to the lips due to brass playing happens where the rim happens to be on the lips, irrespective of the vermillion. It appears that the upper lip (the entire lip, not just the vermillion) is more prone to injuries than the lower lip (hence the common advice to not “dig into” the upper lip with the mouthpiece or keep more mouthpiece “weight” on the lower lip compared to the upper). Injuries can and do happen under the vermillion, but perhaps more commonly outside the vermillion (which is unsurprising, if you consider that more players are going to have the rim contact on the upper lip above the vermillion. In fact, some lip injuries happen completely away from the rim contact.

-Papsin, B.C., Maaske, L.A., & McGrail, J.S. (1996). Orbicularis oris muscle injury in brass players. Laryngoscope 106, 757-760.

I was also able to find some literature that flat out stated that the vermillion area of the lips is not more prone to injury. H.L. Wilson, a medical doctor writing for The Clarinet, discussed the vermillion in the context of a clarinet embouchure.

In summary, the vermilion portion of lips tolerates pressure well. . .

-Wilson, H.L. (2000). Lips. The Clarinet, 27(4), 38-39.

Yes, the forces involved in a clarinet embouchure and brass embouchure are different, but combined with a more thorough understanding of the anatomy and histology of the lips along with a lack of evidence to the contrary, this leads me to believe that there is no anatomical reason to believe that it is risky to place the brass mouthpiece rim on the vermillion.

Mechanics

While the above discussion of anatomy is outside of my particular area of expertise, brass embouchure mechanics is right in my wheelhouse. I first became interested in brass embouchure mechanics sometime around 1996. I wrote my dissertation on original research investigating brass embouchure types and their correlation to easily observed physical characteristics. Since completing my doctorate in 2000 I’ve published and presented resources that deal with brass embouchures in a peer reviewed journal, academic papers, online, and at professional conferences. I’ve documented with photos and video around 100 brass players’ embouchures of beginning students, college students, professional performers, university brass teachers, and amateurs over five states at six different universities. I’ve been asked to consult with physical therapists and doctors treating embouchure injuries in the United States and Europe and some of my writing about brass embouchure have been translated into Japanese and Italian. Part of conducting my research involved thorough reviews of the literature, so at risk of blowing my own horn (pun intended), I’m fairly confident in the information and context I can provide here about brass mechanics.

First, there appears to be no relationship between the size and shape of an individual’s vermillion and the player’s embouchure technique. There doesn’t appear to be any relationship between how the lips vibrate at the vermillion and the rest of the lips. There is a wide range of vertical mouthpiece placement among brass players, with a minority that place the mouthpiece either high or low enough so that the rim of the mouthpiece contacts a great deal of the upper or lower lip vermillion. There is also a lot of variation on how wide an individual brass player’s vermillion is, as well as differences between rim sizes. Considering that the division between vermillion and normal skin on the lips is arbitrary and varies so much, I don’t think that it’s really useful to discuss mouthpiece placement as a factor of where it is placed in relation to the vermillion.

On the other hand, we can consider whether it’s mechanically incorrect to place the mouthpiece very high or low. This feature also varies quite a bit from player to player, with most folks falling more towards the center than very high or very low. While there are many anatomical features that influence an individual brass player’s mouthpiece placement, such as the shape of the teeth and gums that provides the support structure for the embouchure, the most likely characteristics that influences the vertical placement of the mouthpiece include the length of the lips compared to the length of the teeth and gums and possibly the shape and angle of the lips to each other. The shorter the player’s upper lip, the more likely that player appears to need to place the mouthpiece lower on the lips.

As you can see in the photo to the left, my upper lip is very short in comparison to my upper teeth and gums. When I form my embouchure I have to stretch my upper lip down quite a bit in order to get it over the upper front teeth. There simply isn’t much lip mass in my upper lip that is free to vibrate inside the mouthpiece.

A vibrating brass embouchure works more like a clarinet reed than an oboe reed. One lip or another predominates inside the mouthpiece and is the primary vibrating area. The other lip does vibrate in tandem with the other, but it serves more like the clarinet mouthpiece to the other lip as the reed. This feature can be easily seen on Lloyd Leno’s films.

For me, and for a minority of other brass players, anything other than this extremely low placement doesn’t work well at all. Most folks find it too hard to play this way, but they don’t have the same extremely short upper lip. I tried for a long time to play with a more conventional looking mouthpiece placement. I was taught early to try to keep my mouthpiece centered on the lips and with more upper lip inside and so I played that way all the way into my mid-20s. My personal experience was that I played OK with the centered placement (well enough to get through two music degrees and be accepted into doctoral studies in trombone performance), but until I made the correction to my embouchure you see in the photo to the right that I did not have the range and endurance I needed to play at a high level. This embouchure type isn’t as common as more conventional looking brass embouchures, but it probably represents about 10% of brass players.

Summary

Despite the opinions of many other brass players and teachers who feel otherwise, there appears to be no anatomical or mechanical reasons why placing the mouthpiece so that the rim contacts a great deal of the vermillion is going to lead to greater risk of injury or mechanical difficulties, provided that the player’s anatomical features are best suited to that placement. Individual anatomy is so variable that even setting a “rule of thumb” is arbitrary at best and may even lead to a brass student playing in a way that is mechanically inefficient for his or her face – which does increase the risk of injury, regardless of how conventional the mouthpiece placement may look.

In my opinion, the whole idea of using the vermillion as a factor for diagnosing or troubleshooting a brass embouchure is misguided. It is much better for brass teachers and players to gain a more thorough understanding of the basic brass embouchure types and how they function, as well as how much brass embouchures vary from player to player, even between players belonging to the same embouchure type. We can probably safely ignore the advice from teachers who emphatically state that this is wrong unless and until they begin providing plausible evidence to the contrary.

A

As a IIIA trumpeter with a fleshy lower lip, I must place the mouthpiece rim on the red of the lower lip. This has always caused me problems. My soft fleshy lower lip swells and bruises under the pressure of the rim. Often my lip turns bright red and is sore to the touch, almost like its been burned. Needless to say this has placed limitations on my ability to progress. I’ve had lessons with many Reinhardt instructors, but none have been able to provide much help with the issue.

Dave

I’m not sure what I can recommend without watching you play in person, “A.” I don’t know which “Reinhardt instructors” you’ve seen either, but I’m curious what advice they gave you about it.

My instincts at this point would be to look for some issues with your overall embouchure form that might be causing you to use excessive pressure on your lower lip. IIIA embouchure types (I prefer to say “very high placement” types) typically have a horn angle that is close to straight out and possibly your horn angle is too low for a IIIA. Maybe you should move your placement slightly lower and be playing as a “medium high placement” embouchure type (Reinhardt type IIIB) or even lower to be an upstream type.

Eric

Hi David!
I’m a 4th year high school student Tuba player with probably the most extreme case of “playing on the red” I can think of. In this image (https://imgur.com/a/ZVQBN) I’m placing my lips as I usually do to play a Bb2 on the 2nd line of the bass clef. The corners of my upper lip spill over the rim of the mouthpiece and one can see those corners moving up when I ascend and down when I descend. Though I find that I usually play very well with this placement and I do not press against the mouthpiece harshly, my top lip is often bruised and I struggle with precision in my higher range (Ab3 and above) I believe that this because I am accustomed to an upstream embouchure despite having a slight overbite and a larger upper lip (https://imgur.com/a/eHOwN). I have also experimented slightly with two different embouchures, but I would really appreciate your advice before attempting to switch to either.

#1 – Low placement but with “tucked in” lips (https://imgur.com/a/NAP2N)
– Looks more natural but still goes against my overbite
– Attempted anyway because I’m used to moving the mp down to ascend and up to descend
– High notes easier to hit and range cap starts to fade (though very unstable)
– Extremely difficult to control in the usual mid-low (F1-C3) register
– Usual range sounds sounds weak, gargled, out of tune, and is littered with split attacks.

#2 – High placement (https://imgur.com/a/7ZGYx)
– Looks the most “normal” for Tuba players and makes my lips feel the least strained, especially in the higher register
– High range above F3 much more open and resonate than both other embouchures
– Unfortunately, useful range (F1-C3) greatly suffered again
– Couldn’t find a way to set mouth and lip corners to prevent airy tone
– Moving the mouthpiece up to ascend and down to descend feels completely unnatural and contrary to anything I’ve ever done

I apologize for the wall of text, but I just wanted to convey as much information as possible as I don’t know any professional in my area that studies what you do. I would really appreciate any advice, whether it is to stick to what I’ve learned or rebuild my embouchure from the ground up.

Dave

Eric, your “attempt #1” looks the best of the photos you posted, but it’s hard to say without being able to watch that in context (video, with sound). I wouldn’t think of “tucking in” your lips, but keeping them firm. It should be possible to do this without changing the jaw position that works best for you, so I’d start there and see what happens.

Sometimes making a correction can help in the high range but make the middle and low range more difficult at first, which sounds like something you’re experience. Again, it’s hard to say without being able to see your chops in action. Video is best, if you can post it.

Eric

Sorry for the week-long delay but here’s a brief video that basically lets you hear what I mean.
Link: https://youtu.be/tA-9K-rbBpM
If would need me play anything else in order to come to a conclusion, I will happily do so and send you the video when I can get to it 🙂

Dave

Eric,

First a disclaimer. I’m making an educated guess based on seeing a brief video. In an in-person lesson I would experiment first with your low placement embouchure. Both the easier high register and better overall embouchure firmness make me suspect that is the place to start, at least.

The type of exercise I would suggest starting with to help you develop more control and connection to the low register is to play in your upper register very softly. Gradually slur down through the partials and keep it very soft, do not try to open up the sound. Keep the mouth corners firm and don’t allow your overall embouchure form to collapse the way it does when you descend with the other embouchure. It’s probably going to seem impossible at first. Be aware of your descending embouchure motion to push the mouthpiece and lips together upward as you descend and try to let that motion allow the middle and low register to sound, rather than opening up and relaxing the lips outside the mouthpiece.

If you search for “low placement embouchure type” here I have a lot of posts that talk about this embouchure type and I happen to have a similar embouchure. It’s possible that this isn’t the best embouchure for you, but from what I can tell it’s probably the best place for you to start.

Dave

Eric

I’m really grateful for your advice David, especially since I know this way of sharing isn’t ideal. I don’t think I’ll be switching out of low placement embouchure anytime soon, that might be too large of a jump for me right now. I’ll defenitely try out your slur exercises though and see if I can better link my high and low register together as opposed to having (essentially) two different “strong” embouchures for each range.

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