Embouchure FAQ

Over the years I’ve posted quite a bit of information about brass embouchures on various places online.  It’s fairly common for brass players having troubles to come across something I’ve posted and email me for advice.  While I do hope to be able to help these players, I also try to caution them that it’s very hard to help someone when you can’t be there in person.  In the spirit of that caveat emptor, here are some frequently asked questions I get about embouchures.  As I get more questions and find more time, I’ll update this page and add new questions and my responses.

What is a downstream embouchure?  What is an upstream embouchure?

An embouchure’s air stream direction is determined by the ratio of upper to lower lip inside the mouthpiece.  The correct air stream direction for an individual is based on the player’s unique anatomy, and isn’t something that you can change through practice.  When the player places the mouthpiece closer to the nose, the upper lip predominates inside the mouthpiece and the embouchure is downstream.  Less common, but still correct for many players, is to place the mouthpiece closer to the chin.  Because the lower lip predominates inside the mouthpiece, the air steam is blown up.  Read this article for more information about embouchure air stream direction.

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What is an embouchure motion?

This is the term I prefer to use to describe the phenomena where all brass players will slide the lips and mouthpiece together along the teeth in an upward or downward direction while changing registers.  Some players will push the lips and mouthpiece as a unit up towards the nose to ascend, while others will pull down towards the chin.  Sometimes there is some side to side motion as well.  For more information about the embouchure motion read this article.

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What is a pivot?

I prefer not to use this term because many players use this term in different ways.  Some players will properly alter the angle of their instrument as they make the embouchure motion to adjust for the shape of their teeth, gums, and jaw.  Many people refer to this changing of the instrument angle as a “pivot.”  Donald Reinhardt, author of The Encyclopedia of the Pivot System, used this term to describe what I call the embouchure motion.  He ended up regretting using this term because it caused confusion, but most of his former students still use the term “pivot.”  I avoid using it and recommend you do as well, if you want to be properly understood.  For more information about Reinhardt read this article.

I’m having trouble with my embouchure.  Can you help?

Not without having more information.  Ideally, we’d have to meet in person for a private lesson.  My fee varies according to who I’m teaching and for how long we’re meeting in one sitting.  Sometimes troubleshooting embouchures takes some time, so in those cases I tend to charge a flat fee and go as long as we can.

However, if your OK with me video taping your embouchure for my ongoing brass embouchure research, and are willing to sign a subject consent form giving me permission to use and publish that data, then I don’t charge at all.

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But I live too far away from you, can you help me online?

Honestly, I don’t really think this is a viable way to effectively troubleshoot embouchure troubles.  Still, I’m usually willing to take a shot at it if you have access to a decent video camera and a way to post or send me video footage to look at.  I won’t make any promises, but I’ll tell you what I can see and take my best guess.

Since I won’t charge for trying to guess embouchure issues online and because I sometimes get busy teaching and playing music, it might be a while before I can get around to giving your videos the attention I’d need to comment.  Please be patient with me if I haven’t responded quickly, but feel free to drop me an email reminder if I don’t get back to you sooner or later.

Before you contact me, however, it will help save us some time and effort if you carefully read this blog post here.

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What should I video tape?

First of all, please use a decent camera with good resolution.  Most web cams just don’t really allow you to get close enough while keeping the video in focus.  If you take a look at the embouchure footage on my YouTube channel, that’s the sort of close up footage I need to see.  It should also be a decent frame rate, I can’t spot certain things I look for with choppy footage.

As far as what I’d like to see, it depends on the specific issues you’re having.  If you need advice for something in particular (high range, embouchure break, etc.), I’d need to see some of that.  This may seem like a no-brainer, but I’ve gotten a number of people who emailed or posted videos for me to help them with their high register that never bothered to play in their upper register so I could see and hear what it looks like.  I also would need to see something in all ranges.  Octave slurs, particularly two or more octaves, are particularly useful for looking for certain embouchure characteristics.  Other than that, it can depend on the particular issues that you’re having and what sort of playing you normally do.  If you want to save time, it would be best to contact me with your specific questions and I’ll tell you what I think I need to see.

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I don’t have a video camera, can I just send you photographs?

Unfortunately this doesn’t work so well.  It would be better than nothing, and maybe with some verbal or written description I might be able to make an educated guess, but one of the things I need to see is how you transition between pitches.  Still photographs just don’t let me see certain things that can cause problems.

Again, it’s less than ideal, but if this is the only way you can go I’d want to see photographs from the front and side of you playing over your entire range, something very low, medium low, medium, medium high, high, and the highest pitch you can manage.

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What are you looking for when you are helping students with their embouchure?

If you know what to look for, all brass embouchures can be classified into different embouchure types that can all be successful, but function in different ways.  These embouchure types are different from how many other teachers discuss embouchure in that they aren’t practice methods, but rather descriptions of how brass embouchures function properly according to the individual player’s anatomy.

When I’m trying to help a brass player with embouchure issues I first want to figure out what embouchure type the player has and whether that is the correct embouchure type for the player’s anatomy.  Embouchure problems can be caused by playing on an embouchure type that isn’t correct for the player’s face, or because the player is making deviations from his or her proper embouchure form.

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What are the basic embouchure types?

Depending on how detailed you want to get, there are many different embouchure types.  My preference is to break embouchures down into three basic types.  The Very High Placement type typically places the mouthpiece with 75% or more upper lip inside the mouthpiece and is one of the downstream types.  This embouchure type always will have an ascending embouchure motion of pushing the mouthpiece and lips together up towards the nose.  The Medium High Placement type also places more upper lip inside and is downstream.  They tend to place the mouthpiece with just over 50% to about 75% upper lip inside.  The embouchure motion for this type is always to pull down to ascend.  The Low Placement type places the mouthpiece with just over 50% or more lower lip inside and is upstream.  These players almost always will have an embouchure motion to pull down to ascend.  For more information about the three basic embouchure types read this article.

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I’m embouchure type X, what should I be doing to fix my problems?

Catch a lesson with someone (in person) who knows how to accurately type your embouchure, because it’s really very difficult to type yourself, particularly if you haven’t had some experience looking at other players to learn what the signs are.  It’s also very helpful, and in some cases necessary, to have a transparent mouthpiece on hand to know for certain.  Cut-a-way mouthpieces and rim-only visualizers can give an approximate view, but they can be a little misleading.

I know of a number of teachers around the U.S. who are more than qualified to accurately type your embouchure and help you learn how it functions best.  Most are a handful of former students of Donald Reinhardt’s who happened to be interested enough in his pedagogy to learn more than their own embouchure type from him. If you can’t get in person with someone like that and have access to video recording equipment, you can video tape yourself and get in touch with me.  I might be able to help you, but it’s very hard to do it this way.

A good alternative would be to get with an experienced teacher who also has an open mind and is curious to learn more about brass embouchures.  Although there’s a lot of misinformation about brass embouchures out there, with a little background, your current brass teacher may be able to help point you in the right direction.  A good start for teachers to learn more about brass embouchures and how to separate the wheat from the chaff might be my 50 minute video called Brass Embouchures: A Guide for Teachers and Players.  This is a free resource.

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My teachers says I need to change my embouchure, but I’m not comfortable with it.  What should I do?

This is a tough call, but I would generally recommend you go with what your teacher suggests.  He or she hopefully knows more about your embouchure than you do and has a good reason for recommending the change.  If your teacher doesn’t explain to your satisfaction why it’s necessary to make the change you should ask (politely) why.  What your teacher suggests may just be for the best.

That said, many teachers are well-meaning, but misinformed about how brass embouchures function differently for different players.  Many brass musicians mistakenly assume that the embouchure type that works best for them personally must be correct for all players.  If you suspect that your teacher hasn’t heard about the basic embouchure types yet, you might ask him or her to watch my 6 part video on YouTube called Brass Embouchures: A Guide for Teachers and Players.  If your teacher isn’t the YouTube watching type but is open minded enough to watch it, you might try getting in touch with me and I’ll drop try to drop a DVD of it in the mail to your teacher.

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I place the mouthpiece on the red of my upper lip.  My teachers says I need to move the placement higher on the lips.  What should I do?

This is probably the most common issue related to embouchure troubles that I’ve come across.  This low, on the red of the upper lip, mouthpiece placement is a characteristic of many upstream brass embouchures.  While this embouchure type is less common than the other basic types, it is correct for a sizable minority of brass players.  Teachers should very carefully consider whether to change students who have this embouchure type.  Click here to learn more about why it’s fine to place on the red of your upper lip, as long as it fits your anatomy.

Ultimately, my advice is the same as above, but I’d be a little more aggressive (politely, of course) about getting your teacher to let you stick with the lower mouthpiece placement for a while.  Upstream embouchures are a little more delicate than the downstream types and sometimes require a little more care and work to get them functioning consistently well.  When they do get working properly, though, they can be some of the strongest embouchures you can come across.  If your embouchure type is properly an upstream one you’ll do better in the long term by working with that embouchure type instead of trying to change it to something that doesn’t fit your anatomy.

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I’m going through an embouchure change.  How long will it take before I can play better than before?

Never, if the new embouchure isn’t correct for your face.  Many teachers make a big deal out of “fixing” a student’s embouchure by moving the mouthpiece placement to where the teacher plays and “letting the muscles develop.”  If  the embouchure type isn’t correct for the player, however, no amount of practice is going to make that student’s embouchure work better than playing consistently on the correct embouchure type.

Assuming that a new embouchure is correct for you, it really depends on the particular situation.  My personal experience changing my embouchure was that though my high range was immediately stronger, it took about 3 or 4 months before I felt more confident than with my previous embouchure.  Some players have an almost immediate boost in their playing, while others struggle for years.  Probably the 3 or 4 months adjustment period is typical for major embouchure corrections, but that’s just my best guess.  Everyone’s different.

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Where do you get those transparent mouthpiece you use in your videos and photographs?

I’ve used several different types of transparent mouthpieces for my research.  When I began researching brass embouchures I commissioned Terry Warburton to fashion a transparent trombone mouthpiece cup that could screw on to different sized shanks.  Later I found some of Donald Reinhardt’s transparent mouthpiece design for sale and used some of those.  Since the plexiglass develops small cracks in them eventually, begin to get cloudy when you use a bleach concentration to disinfect them, and are prone to breaking if you drop, I eventually had to replace them.  Today I use the transparent mouthpieces made by Kelly Mouthpieces, just look for their “crystal clear” color.

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How do you keep the transparent mouthpieces from fogging up while you photograph players’ embouchures?

Frequently the condensation that appears on the inside of the transparent mouthpiece while you play into it will go away after the mouthpiece warms up a bit, but if you still find it gets too cloudy you can apply some face mask defoggant on the inside.  You can buy that at any store or web site that sells SCUBA or snorkeling equipment.  I’ve also heard that a little shaving cream wiped on the inside will also do the trick.  Another thing you can look into is whatever dentists use on the little mirrors they use to inspect your teeth.

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My question isn’t answered here.  Will you help?

I plan on adding to this FAQ as I get new questions and create and discover new resources on brass embouchures.  Please feel free to contact me and I’ll try to help you, if I can.  In the mean time, try looking here and see if you can find the answer in one of these articles.

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Dan Gloster

No question…for now.

Just a note to express my appreciation that you have spent the time to catalog and share this information.


Brian Finigan

I’ve watched all your videos in the last 2 days and have been studying Reinhardt with the encyclopedia for quite awhile and I appreciate your use of “embouchure motion” rather than pivot. My embouchure is upstream, off to the L side, angle almost straight out. I had been using side movement: R and up for low reg. and L and down for higher reg. In the ency. Reinhardt says it is best no matter what type to put pressure on lower lip but in listening to your videos you say that with a low placement upstream emb. more vibration happens with the lower lip and I seemed to have confirmed this today. Putting more pressure on top for low notes and then more pressure on bottom lip for high notes. This seems to free up vibrations and the side mvt. is not so extreme. Is this correct for low placement upstreamer? thank you, Brian

Steve Lynch - Pittsburgh

I’m 70 years old and have returned to playing my Conn tenor trombone about 2 months ago after having the instrument brought to a playable condition by a music store nearby. I took lessons for about 6 years starting from age 8 and played through College until I was about 20. Initially I was surprised how quickly I progressed. Though I had no lip what so ever the note slide positions I had not forgotten. I finished the Rubanks basic and intermediate books in about 4 weeks and I’ve nearly completed the 1st Advanced Book. I go over each exercise until I think I have it down before I go to the next one. My range has improved: low F to a solid G and up to a tentative B flat. I’d like to get to C sharp if I can. At first I could barely manage an F. I have been practicing about 2 hrs a day in two sessions every day until my lip is exhausted. Double tonguing and triple tonguing seem beyond my capability. Even when I was young I was never very good at rapid tonguing. My tone seems decent in mid range but I don’t feel 100% confident especially in jumps from the low register. I’ve been attempting Rimsky Korsokaffs 1st movement of his trombone concerto and can’t seem to master the initial runs consistently. I’m constantly experimenting with embouchure types, high to low, to find something that yields consistent performance. I’d say a medium high seems to work best but I’m not sure. I replaced my mouthpiece when I started back to a Bach 11C which was much bigger than the old one I had but I think it’s ok. I’m performing Apres un Reve in a show on Saturday. What a beautiful song. I feel pretty confident with it.

I’m looking for any help you might offer or suggestions on how to practice to get better.
Am I doing anything wrong? Should I take a few lessons?



Hi, Steve. Thanks for stopping by.

With the limited amount of time you’ve spent back on the trombone I wouldn’t worry right now about what embouchure type you’re playing on or what type you should be. Simply place the mouthpiece where it works best for now. Over time you’ll develop strength and control again and your embouchure type should become more apparent.

As far as multiple tonguing and fast single tonguing, many people find the key is to articulate much lighter. Be sure you’re not bottling up the air with the tongue. The tongue is a refining factor to the attack, not the defining factor.

I wouldn’t practice until your lip gives out. Quit just before it. In your practice sessions you probably will do better by resting as much time as you’re playing. You can use lots of short (1-5 minute) rest periods in your session effectively by doing mental practice, singing the music, recording yourself and listening back to how you sounded, etc.

The best advice I can give you online is to get with a good private teacher to take regular lessons with. An in-person lesson is always better than random advice from some crazy nut on the internet like me.

Good luck!


Akhil Gundra

Hi I’d otn know if you still help players but I need some major help with my embochure. I’m a high school kid that has a very low placement and does a weird twsting thing with the embochure. I really need help. Please contact me at gundraakhil@gmail.com if you see this.


Akhil, I’ve watched your video a couple of times now. It does look like your twisting up your lips a bit with the mouthpiece. You can try adopting a (very) wet embouchure by wetting your lips before setting the mouthpiece on the lips. I’d also recommend firming your lips as if to buzz before you place the mouthpiece on the lips. When you breath, keep the lips just touching inside the mouthpiece and breath through the mouth corners.

Other than that, I can’t offer too much more because you did not play in the ranges I need to see (e.g., octave slurs across your entire range). Look at the following link and see the descriptions of what I need to see to better advise you:


Akhil Gundra

I don’t know if you will help me but can you tell me about any chop teachers nearby in Scotch plains newjersey.


I am a cornet player who wants also to play trumpet. The mouthpiece i like for the cornet is more conical than my preferred trumpet mouthpiece and feels very different….should I have to play each horn when I practice in order to build up endurance and agility for both?


Hey, Mick.

Everyone is different and some folks have no trouble switching around mouthpieces. I personally regularly play two different horns with different mouthpieces and prefer to practice them both regularly to make it easy to transition between them. That said, I use mouthpieces with the same rim size, so it feels similar on my lips.

Ger Otten

How can a brass teacher investigate which type of embouchure setting will work best on the long term for a student? Is there a guideline tot follow?


It’s a hard process to describe because there are so many subtle clues that you pick up over time. I found a lot of trial and error at first. If I see a student type switching or having problems that seem to be related to playing on the incorrect embouchure type I will have them try different experiments that help us decide what’s going to work best in the long term. Often it’s best to simply work on good embouchure form and allow the embouchure type to develop on its own.

It will help you if you take the time to watch successful (and not so successful)brass players’ embouchure up close and see how things look when things are working and what you notice differently when it’s not.


Yes, the aperture will get smaller the higher you play. However, it will get bigger the louder you play. It is theoretically possible to keep the aperture about the same size as you ascend by playing louder and softer as you descend.

Robert Kosko

Hi David, I have a slight overbite but I like to have mostly lower lip in the mouth piece. I use an upstream embouchure motion when I play higher, but my jaw position does not match the embouchure and I really need to push my jaw out incredibly far. Should I change my embouchure


I’d have to watch you play to know for sure, Robert. Jaw position doesn’t make an embouchure upstream, it’s mouthpiece placement. The embouchure motion upstream players use is also the same as one of the downstream types, so that’s not a perfect indicator of embouchure type. Some folks do play best with their jaw protruded and find it difficult at first to keep their jaw in that position for long periods of time. Whether any of that applies to your situation is impossible to say without at least seeing some video of your playing.

David Hamilton



Hi David

I posted on a forum about issues with my embouchure and your name came up regarding low mp placement advice. Hope you can view the above videos – I am an experienced brass band player in the uk and have always had issues with high range and stamina. I know my setup looks odd – bad habits and lack of expert guidance!

I have included a video going from low to high range and one where I take the bone off and try to buzz – i cant! My buzz I would do as an excercise seems to be nothing like how I play.

Any suggestions ? I would be delighted to get proper advice!

Many thanks



Hi, David.

I know my setup looks odd – bad habits and lack of expert guidance!

Your mouthpiece placement looks fine for a “low placement” embouchure type player. Your overall embouchure form, however, seems to be too loose.

I have included a video going from low to high range and one where I take the bone off and try to buzz – i cant! My buzz I would do as an excercise seems to be nothing like how I play.

That is true of all upstream (low placement) embouchure players. I do recommend free buzzing as an exercise for upstream players, but only away from the horn and in a specific way. This would help you build the muscle strength and control you need to keep your embouchure formation firmed in all registers and probably help with your high register as well. The free buzzing exercise I recommend can be found here:


Also, I suggest you practice firming your lips into their playing position before you place the mouthpiece, then place the mouthpiece, then keep your lips center touching inside the mouthpiece while you breathe through the mouth corners with the same amount of mouthpiece pressure as while playing (or more, at first to keep the lips in place inside the mouthpiece). It may be strange at first, so a good way to ease into it is to firm, place, and then breathe through the nose.

Lastly, I would recommend that as you work on these things during your warm up that you start your warmup maybe around an F above the bass clef staff and spend time practicing moving from your high range into low range (rather than starting low and ascending). Descend by relaxing and using your descending embouchure motion:


Your embouchure motion should be pushing upward to descend and pulling down to descend. There may be some angular deviations, but try to keep it moving in a straight line and try to keep the distance between octaves about the same.

Other than the above, I would need to see more. I also recommend for more advice to contact Doug Elliott (his contact info can be found at http://www.dougelliottmouthpieces.com) and try to schedule a video lesson with him.

Good luck!


Ralph Germann

I’m a swimmer. To keep my goggles from fogging I take a drop of Johnson & Johnson Baby Shampoo on my finger tip and spread it around my goggles. Then I dip my goggles into the water and swish them around just a little bit, shake out the water, and put on my goggles. No fog for an hour of swimming. I don’t have a transparent mouth piece for my trumpet but I’m guessing the shampoo trick will also keep one from fogging up.

Ralph Germann

This is a follow-up to my anti-fogging trick. I shouldn’t assume anything, so I would like to add that the shampoo should be applied to the INSIDE of the goggle lenses, just as it should be applied to the INSIDE of the transparent mouth piece.


Is it unusual the fact that when I articulate the tip of my tongue grazes the bottom of my top tooth? It almost as the syllable “thuh” but I am very light with it. I’m only a senior in high school but my high range is solid up to high C and can go up but simply not consistent enough past that. I can double tongue and get decent resonance. I can do trills but I’m not 100% consistent. I was just wondering if there’s anyone out there who does something similar to what I do. I think the reason this works for me is because it’s the only spot for my tongue to touch and also allow the air to leave my lips with the least resistance and create a buzz. My tongue being larger also might explain why the tip has to actually touch the teeth versus touching the gums. Just wondering if I’m an exception with this, that’s all.


Arin, that’s not unusual. As long as your tongue stays off your lips when you articulate I think it’s fine. Over time you might find that adopting a tongue position where the tip of the tongue strikes higher (particularly as you ascend) will work better. Some folks keep their tongue tip anchored behind that lower teeth and articulate with the middle part of the tongue (sometimes this is called “dorsal tonguing”).


Hi Dave!

Very cool resource! I have a lot of reading to do to catch up with all the good info! It’s hard to find level-headed, thoughtful resources about embouchure issues. Thank you!

I have a general question (which of course I should expect a general response!) I’m a professional trumpet player and teacher that’s never really had to think too much about my embouchure. About a year ago, I had to have my two front top teeth replaced with crowns. Yes, I brush and floss – I just have weak teeth and their time had come to be replaced. I was anxious that the change would cause a few weeks of adjustment. Right. I somehow got through playing a gig that week (giving the principal part to my wonderful colleague and taking things down an octave (shame)) but had to cancel any playing commitments for a few months. I’m back to being able to perform, but it still feels awkward 50% of the time, effecting the sound and musical consistency. Basically the teeth got a little bit thicker, and a tiny bit longer. I’m talking millimeters, but it was enough to cause a noticeable difference even in the way I enunciate my S’s. The teeth feel a little tighter and one protrudes out a little more than the other (the setup I already had after another lesser dental issue 10 years ago, but now they’re thicker). Long story short, the teeth are a little different, but my center of pinch went haywire and my articulation was inconsistent. With a massive amount of fundamental work over the past year, I can move around the horn again and fool most audiences, and my colleagues think that I’m “back to normal” – but the ease of playing, especially my “upper register” (C5 and up – not very high) is still an uphill battle. For the first few months after the crowns were placed, I could tell my “corner muscles” were working more than usual because they would be sore after playing a very simple Arban’s exercise. That soreness is gone and I can work fundamentals for a good 4 hours in a day (with healthy breaks), but the agility is still very hit or miss – more-so in the the C5 and up range.

So… question… How much research into dental issues have you gotten into? Any inspirational thoughts that I can cling onto? Is this just a matter of retraining my center? (I feel like I’ve had to bring everything down to get the sound to resonate… lots of lip bends and pedal tones lately!) Do I just need to keep working to relax my glotis (I instinctively tense it up a bit when a pitch doesn’t lock and resonate)? Will the awkward feeling caused by my tooth that’s thicker than the other every go away? (It’s much better than it was…)

General answer expected. That’s fine. It’s just nice to get these feelings and thoughts out there without expecting the sometimes dreaded “Analysis Paralysis” response (which I get plenty!) (I read your rant from years back… loved and appreciated it!!)

Thanks for the insights!



Hey, Eddie.

Sorry to hear about your struggles returning to form.

Tooth structure is a tricky thing to predict with brass embouchures. With the change in your teeth it’s possible that a different mouthpiece placement or your embouchure motion might need adjustment. I suppose it’s even possible that your embouchure type could change, but probably not very likely.

As always, I’d have to watch you play in order to offer specific advise. Can you post video?

Depending on where you live, there may be some folks nearby you that I can recommend to help you out with your chops. I know a couple of guys (Doug Elliott and Dave Sheetz) who have experience teaching video lessons that you could try too.

Good luck!



Hello Dave!
I’ve seen many of your videos and articles and they are very helpful and informing. Thanks for that.

Here’s the problem, I’ve been playing for 3 years now, in middle school, and in videos of me playing when I just started I had centered mouthpiece placement, and the mouthpiece covering all the “red”. But now when I play, my upper lip “red” is very visible around the top of the mouthpiece, and when going to higher notes above the staff, more and more becomes visible. When I play normally, my upper lip is like an “overbite” over my lower lip, and covers most of it. When I set my mouthpiece on my face, I can’t play by putting it flat on and playing, I kind of “pull” the mouthpiece up from the set position. I know this is wrong, but I’ve played like this for a while.

I have no trouble playing and play pretty well, but I think my endurance or high notes might be capped by this, as my private lesson teacher pointed out.

If I try playing the “right” way, my sound sounds raspy and just awful.

Thanks for the help


Hi, Sol.

In order to help you I really need to see your embouchure in order to best help you. Take a look at this post to see the type of thing I need to see:


There’s nothing wrong with having any red of your upper lip above the mouthpiece. It’s likely that you have an upstream embouchure and this feature is fairly common with upstream players. If your current teacher is telling you this is wrong then it might be best if you ask your teacher if he/she is willing to consult with me in order to take some video of your playing and let me send both of you my thoughts about it. If he/she is willing, drop me another line and I’ll send you an email to get things started.

I don’t quite understand what you’re describing regarding your mouthpiece placement. I’d have to see it.


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